Radiation doses

What is a radiation dose?

Dose from background radiation

Dose from artificial sources of radiation

Radiation dose examples

How radiation dose limits are set

What is a radiation dose?

When ionizing radiation penetrates the human body or an object, it deposits energy. The energy absorbed from exposure to radiation is called a dose. Radiation dose quantities are described in three ways: absorbed, equivalent, and effective.

Dose Quantaties

Dose Quantaties

Dose Quantaties: Absorbed dose, energy deposited in a kilogram of a substance by radiation. Equivalent dose, absorbed dose weighted for the degree of the effect of different radiations (radiation weighting factor wr). Effective dose, equivalent dose weighted for susceptibility to effect of different tissues (tissue weighting factor wt).

Absorbed dose

The amount of energy deposited in a substance (e.g., human tissue), is called the absorbed dose. The absorbed dose is measured in a unit called the gray (Gy). A dose of one gray is equivalent to a unit of energy (joule) deposited in a kilogram of a substance.

Equivalent dose

When radiation is absorbed in living matter, a biological effect may be observed. However, equal absorbed doses will not necessarily produce equal biological effects. The effect depends on the type of radiation (e.g., alpha, beta, gamma, etc) and the tissue or organ receiving the radiation. For example, 1 Gy of alpha radiation is more harmful to tissue than 1 Gy of beta radiation.

A radiation weighting factor (wR) is used to equate different types of radiation with different biological effectiveness. This weighted absorbed quantity is called the equivalent dose and is expressed in a measure called the sievert (Sv). This means that 1 Sv of alpha radiation will have the same biological effect as 1 Sv of beta radiation.

Because doses to workers and the public are so low, most reporting and dose measurements use the terms millisievert (mSv) and microsievert (μSv) which are 1/1000 and 1/1000000 of a sievert respectively. These smaller units of the sievert are more convenient to use in occupational and public settings.

To obtain the equivalent dose, the absorbed dose is multiplied by a specified radiation weighting factor (wR). The equivalent dose provides a single unit which accounts for the degree of harm of different types of radiation.

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Effective dose

Tissue/Organ sensitivity

Tissue/Organ sensitivity

Tissue/Organ sensitivity. Tissue weighting factor wt. Gonads, 0.2. Bone marrow, 0.12. Colon, 0.12. Lung, 0.12. Stomach, 0.12. Bladder, 0.05. breast, 0.05. Liver, 0.05. Oesophagus, 0.05. Thyroid, 0.05. Skin, 0.01. Bone surface, 0.01.

Different tissues and organs have different radiation sensitivities. For example, bone marrow is much more radiosensitive than muscle or nerve tissue. To obtain an indication of how exposure can affect overall health, the equivalent dose can be multiplied by a factor related to the risk for a particular tissue or organ. This multiplication provides the effective dose absorbed by the body. The unit used for effective dose is also the sievert.

Source: CNSC Radiation Protection Regulations

As a simple example, if someone's stomach and bladder are exposed separately to radiation, and the equivalent doses to the tissues are 100 and 70 mSv respectively, the effective dose is: (100 mSv x 0.12) + (70 x 0.05) = 15.5 mSv. The risk of harmful effects from this radiation is equal to 15.5 mSv received uniformly through the whole body.

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Dose from background radiation

Radiation has always been present all around us. In fact, life has evolved in a world containing significant levels of ionizing radiation. It comes from space, the ground, and even within our bodies. The doses due to natural background radiation vary depending on location and habits.

Dose from cosmic radiation

Regions at higher altitudes receive more cosmic radiation. According to a recent study by Health Canada, the annual effective dose of radiation from cosmic rays in Vancouver, British Columbia, which is at sea level, is about 0.30 mSv. This compares to the top of Mount Lorne, Yukon, where at 2000 m, a person would receive an annual dose of about 0.84 mSv. Air travel also increases exposure to more cosmic radiation, for a further average dose of 0.01 mSv per Canadian per year.

Dose from terrestrial radiation

There are also natural sources of radiation in the ground. For example, some regions receive more terrestrial radiation from soils that are enriched with uranium. The average effective dose from the radiation emitted from the soil (and the construction materials that come from the ground) is approximately 0.5 mSv a year. However, the dose varies depending on location and geology, with doses reaching as high as 260 mSv in Northern Iran or 90 mSv in Nigeria. In Canada, the estimated highest annual dose is approximately 2.3 mSv measured in the Northwest Territories.

Dose from inhalation

The earth's crust also contributes to our levels of exposure. Radon gas, which is produced by the earth, is present in the air we breathe. There are four decay products of radon with very short half-lives that will irradiate the lungs if inhaled. Radon gas naturally disperses as it enters the atmosphere from the ground. However, when radon gas enters a building (through the floor from the ground), the concentration tends to build up. The worldwide average annual effective dose of radon radiation is approximately 1.2 mSv.

Dose from ingestion

Finally, there are a number of sources of natural radiation that penetrate our bodies through the food we eat, the air we breathe and the water we drink. Potassium-40 is the main source of internal irradiation (aside from radon decay). The average effective dose from these sources is approximately 0.3 mSv a year.

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Sources and Average Effective Dose from Natural Background Radiation in Selected Canadian Cities
Canadian City Total (mSv/y) Cosmic radiation (mSv/y) Terrestrial background (mSv/y) Annual inhalation dose (mSv/y) Radionuclides in the body (mSv/y)

CANADA

1.8

0.3

0.2

0.9

0.3

Whitehorse

1.9

0.5

0.2

0.9

0.3

Yellowknife

3.1

0.4

1.4

0.9

0.3

Victoria

1.8

0.5

0.1

0.9

0.3

Vancouver

1.3

0.5

0.1

0.4

0.3

Edmonton

2.4

0.5

0.3

1.3

0.3

Regina

3.5

0.4

0.3

2.4

0.3

Winnipeg

4.1

0.4

0.2

3.2

0.3

Toronto

1.6

0.4

0.2

0.8

0.3

Ottawa

1.8

0.4

0.2

0.9

0.3

Iqualuit

1.9

0.5

0.2

0.9

0.3

Québec City

1.6

0.4

0.2

0.7

0.3

Montreal

1.6

0.4

0.3

0.7

0.3

Fredericton

1.8

0.3

0.3

0.9

0.3

Halifax

2.5

0.3

0.3

1.5

0.3

Charlottetown

1.8

0.3

0.2

0.9

0.3

St-John's

1.6

0.4

0.2

0.7

0.3

Sources: Gratsky et al., 2004, UNSCEAR 2008, Geological Survey of Canada

Worldwide dose levels from natural background radiation

The total worldwide average effective dose from natural radiation is approximately 2.4 mSv a year. However, doses can vary greatly. The following figure shows how Canadian cities and the Canadian average dose compare to other parts of the world.

Average annual effective dose from natural sources

Average annual effective dose from natural sources

Average annual effective dose from natural sources. Kerala Coast, India, 12.50 msv. Yanjiang, China, 6.30 msv. U.S. average, 3 msv. Halifax, 2.50 msv. Worldwide average, 2.40 msv. edmonton, 2.40 msv. Canadian average, 1.77 msv. Montreal, 1.62 msv. Toronto, 1.59 msv. Vancouver, 1.25 msv.

Sources: Gratsky et al. 2004, UNSCEAR 2008, NCRP 160 2009

Dose from artificial sources of radiation

Artificial sources of radiation (commercial and industrial activities) account for approximately 0.6 mSv of our annual radiation exposure. X-rays and other diagnostic and therapeutic medical procedures account for approximately 1.2 mSv a year (UNSCEAR 2000). Consumer products like tobacco and smoke detectors account for another 0.1 mSv of our exposure to radiation each year.

In all, natural radiation accounts for approximately 60% of our annual dose. Medical procedures account for roughly 40% of our annual radiation.

There is no difference between the effects caused by natural or man-made radiation.

Typical organ doses from various radiological examinations
Study Type Relevant Organ Dose (mSv)
Dental x-ray Brain 0.011
Chest x-ray Lung 0.11
Screening mammography Breast 32
Adult abdominal CT Stomach 102
Neonatal abdominal CT Stomach 202

1 Ionizing Radiation Exposure of the Population of the United States", NCRP Report No. 160, 2009
2 Brenner and Hall (2007)

Radiation Dose Examples

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Dose limits

The Canadian Radiation Protection Regulations set limits on the amount of radiation the public and nuclear energy workers may receive.

In Canada, the effective dose limits for the public is 1 mSv in one calendar year. Regular reporting and monitoring demonstrates the average annual effective doses to the public from activities licensed by the CNSC range from 0.001 to 0.1 mSv per year.

Facility Maximum annual dose to members of the public as a result of airborne and waterborne emissions, by year (millisieverts, mSv)
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Nuclear Generating Stations
Point Lepreau 0.0005 0.0005 0.0006 0.0007 0.0018
Gentilly-2 0.0040 0.0056 0.0057 0.0009 0.0006
Darlington 0.0011 0.0008 0.0011 0.0014 0.0013
Pickering 0.0057 0.0061 0.0028 0.0026 0.0041
Bruce 0.0016 0.0020 0.0025 0.0021 0.0027
CNL Chalk River Laboratories 0.1200 0.0980 0.0990 0.0726 0.1350

Data taken from licensees' environmental monitoring data reports, as submitted to the CNSC.

The effective dose limits for a nuclear energy worker is set at 50 mSv in any one year and 100 mSv in five consecutive years. The dose limit for pregnant workers is 4 mSv from the time the pregnancy is declared to the end of the term. In addition, licensees must ensure that all doses are as low as reasonably achievable, social and economic factors being taken into account ( ALARA). Regular reporting and monitoring demonstrate the average annual doses to the most exposed workers (e.g., industrial radiographer) are approximately 5 mSv per year.

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How radiation dose limits are set

Canadian regulations follow the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, which comprises some of the world's leading scientists and other professionals in the field of radiation protection, and also uses many of the standards and guides of the International Atomic Energy Agency.

In Canada, the regulations, standards and practices to protect people and workers from radiation that are not regulated by the CNSC are implemented by Health Canada, Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, the Department of National Defence, and provincial/territorial governments.

In addition, the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Radiation Protection Committee (FPtrPC) develops guidelines with respect to ionizing and non-ionizing radiation and works to harmonize radiation protection regulations across Canada. Co-chaired by the CNSC, Health Canada and the provinces, the FPtrPC provides a national forum on radiation protection issues.

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