Import and Export of Nuclear Substances, Equipment and Technology
Since 1946, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) has worked to ensure Canada's nuclear exports are used for peaceful purposes and to respect Canada's international commitments regarding non-proliferation of nuclear weapons.
As a founding and active member of the Zangger Committee and the Nuclear Suppliers Group — multilateral organizations with supply conditions for nuclear and nuclear-related exports — CNSC is committed to monitoring and controlling the import and export of controlled nuclear substances, equipment and information.
Canada's major nuclear exports are governed by bilateral nuclear cooperation agreements with destination countries. CNSC works with Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada to negotiate these agreements and to implement Canada's nuclear non-proliferation policy by providing policy and technical advice in developing multilateral nuclear export control lists and guidelines.
The Nuclear Non-proliferation Import and Export Control Regulations require Canadian importers and exporters to obtain and comply with licences controlling the international transfer of nuclear and nuclear-related items.
These regulations contain a complete list of CNSC-controlled imports and exports, which include:
- special fissionable material (for example, certain isotopes of plutonium and uranium)
- deuterium and heavy water
- nuclear-grade graphite
- nuclear reactors and their parts
- controlled nuclear information (for example, technology, technical data, drawings, models)
- nuclear-related dual-use items (controlled nuclear substances, equipment and information with legitimate non-nuclear uses, which could also be used in nuclear explosive or unsafeguarded nuclear fuel cycle activities
In compliance with the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, CNSC licenses and controls the export and import of certain risk-significant radioactive sealed sources.